Malham is made up of natural features of Malham Cove,Gordale Scar, Malham Tarn, and limestone pavements.

Standing some 80 metres high and 300 metres wide and north of the mid craven fault,

Malham Cove is a curved crag of carboniferous limestone formed after the last ice age.

Meltwater, particularly from Malham Tarn, cut back the cove as it fell over the edge as a waterfall. This errosion took place more actively at the lip of the fall rather than at the sides, hence the curved shape.

Water (in reduced amounts after the ice age) easily finds it way down through the many joints
and fissures of the limestone and thus the saturation level never rises high enough to make Malham Cove the waterfall that it once was, although it has been reported of water flowing over the cove after heavy rainfalls in the early 19th century.

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